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River Birch

Betula nigra

Height: The river birch tree reaches about 40 to 80 feet in height 

Evergreen/Deciduous: Deciduous  

Lifespan: Short-lived; 60 years or so  

Fall Foliage: Typically, an uninspiring pale yellow-brown

Range: The eastern United States, west to the Great Plains  

Typical Habitat: The quintessential riparian species, but you may encounter it anywhere with sufficient sunlight and soil moisture  

River birch tree leaf

The River Birch Tree: A Familiar Streamside Favorite   

The river birch is a familiar favorite of many nature lovers. It’s not only an attractive tree, but it’s also a valuable wildlife resource (birds and rodents feed heavily on the tree’s seed). For that matter, the tree’s bark is one of the most celebrated sources of tinder among hikers and campers.

A quick-growing riparian pioneer, the river birch often grows alongside the other usual lowland suspects, including ironwood trees (Carpinus caroliniana), red maples (Acer rubrum), sweet gums (Liquidambar styraciflua) and alders (Alnus spp.).  

River Birch Tree Identification: Tips & Tricks

The river birch rarely presents identification problems. It’s leaning, often-multi-trunked growth habit and peeling bark are often visible from afar, and its habitat preference provides another clue in natural locations. This is actually a pretty easy species to identify in any season.

But the leaves are also distinctive and allow for a quick and easy ID in the spring, summer and fall. Strongly triangular and “double-toothed” (the teeth have teeth), these leaves are pretty easy to recognize.

The River Birch: Additional Information

Interested in learning more about the river birch? Start your journey with the following resources:

  • North Carolina State Extension: Basic information and an assortment of high-quality photographs of the river birch.
  • U.S. Forest Service: A comprehensive guide to the species, including distribution, ecology, and management considerations.
  • Wisconsin Horticulture: A great resource that provides interesting information from the far northwestern portion of the species’ range.   

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